可以收利息取利吗?

[出22]“If you lend money to any of my people with you who is poor, you shall not be like a moneylender to him, and you shall not exact interest from him. If ever you take your neighbor’s cloak in pledge, you shall return it to him before the sun goes down, for that is his only covering, and it is his cloak for his body; in what else shall he sleep? And if he cries to me, I will hear, for I am compassionate.

[申23]“You shall not charge interest on loans to your brother, interest on money, interest on food, interest on anything that is lent for interest. You may charge a foreigner interest, but you may not charge your brother interest, that the LORD your God may bless you in all that you undertake in the land that you are entering to take possession of it.

注意这都是说当借给自己“贫穷的弟兄”的时候不可取利,这规定是属于摩西律法整个国民经济体系的。到了新约的时候,则是进一步说当你借贷给人的时候不要指望偿还,还要爱仇敌。但总的意思是一样的,就是要有怜悯心,不要为了自己的利益而掩面不顾别人的死活。

注意当时并不是资本时代(其实上帝不喜悦以色列人经商的),借钱的人基本也都是为了解决温饱问题,而不是为了扩大投资或者为了买大件商品而透支,所以借方基本都是揭不开锅的穷人。自己富足有余,不但不愿施舍给穷人,还要通过借贷从他们身上取利,这实在不是有爱心的表现。而且是借给自己的弟兄,这些弟兄同样是在摩西律法约束下的,有相应的权利、义务。

到了纸币为主的时代,借方大多是公司、法人等盈利实体,他们借钱的目的是为了发展、追求利润。个人通过银行、证券等方式借钱给他们其实是投资、参股行为,当然应该获得合理的收益。而银行、金融类公司在这一社会化投资行为中起中介、顾问、代理的作用,他们提供了服务,承担了风险,促使资产发挥作用,当然也应该获得相应的收益。

在社会化环境里公司是盈利实体,不是慈善机构。同时也专门有慈善、福利机构负责处理社会公益事务,比如救济贫困、医疗、养老、教育等。这是社会化分工的结果。比如那个盖兹就一边在微软赚钱,一边开另一个公司做慈善,这两者没有矛盾,却有分工。所以说个人不同于公司。个人一边要赚钱一边要帮助穷困中的弟兄,对弟兄的帮助是不求回报的,连本都可折,更别提利息了。