创世纪.亚当.从受造到婚礼

Created Monday 31 December 2012

在上文中提出了“离开父母”的“身体”说,也大概提及这些与基督之间的关系,本文主要聚焦于这一预表。

亚当是基督的预表,这是保罗所确认了的(罗5:15),这并非是牵强附会,因为基督正是第二亚当。对于救主基督来说,有三个关键节点:降世、受难-复活、再临。“再临-天国的婚宴”对应着亚当与夏娃的“联合”,“受难-复活”对应着神让亚当沉睡、取其肋骨又让他复原,基督的降世当然对应着亚当的受造。

then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature.【ESV】

亚当的受造是很特别的——与其它动物不同:神是先用地上的尘土造人,然后把“生气”(the breath of life)吹入(breath into)其鼻孔里面,这样他就成了一个有生命的造物(a living creature)。和合本中“有灵的活人”使人误以为上帝的吹气使亚当有了“灵”,进而认为那“气”也就是人的“灵”,这需要仔细斟酌。基督是属天的,基督的灵魂当然也是属天的了,亚当是属地的,反推亚当的灵魂也是属地的了。亚当的属地在他的受造上很形象的表达了出来。

神把生命之气吹入这人之后尘土就活了,在此之前人不是活的。其它的活物是上帝直接造的,而亚当这个活物的受造多了一个吹气的过程。这一动作似乎暗示了人的生命需要连接于上帝,这是人不同于动物的地方。

总之,神给了人生命,这生命是从神的吹气而来的,这气是生命之气,使人成为活人。

圣经中的吹气非独此一处:

21) Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, even so I am sending you.”22) And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit.23) If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you withhold forgiveness from any, it is withheld.” 【约20,ESV】

这里主把吹气和受圣灵联系起来了。而圣灵来的时候:

2) And suddenly there came from heaven a sound like a mighty rushing wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting.3) And divided tongues as of fire appeared to them and rested on each one of them.4) And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance. 【徒2,ESV】

这里的确是“听起来”像风一样,又看到舌头如同火焰落在众人头上,然后人们开始说圣灵所给他们的“方言”。这里风、火焰、舌头等当然都是“异象化的表达”,同理“方言”也是。这是上帝的行为艺术。那么圣灵到底是来做什么的呢?

25) “These things I have spoken to you while I am still with you.26) But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.【约14,ESV】

可见圣灵来是做“保惠师”,教导门徒基督之道。

63) It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh is no help at all. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life.【约6】

什么是“生命”呢?基督的话就是生命(约6:63),圣灵正是把基督的话“吹入”我们的鼻孔里面,使我们成为有生命的活人。

但基督又说他就是生命的粮,人要吃他的肉喝他的血才能得生命。这样基督的话与基督是合而为一的,正如同约翰所说的,基督就是上帝的“道(WORD)”,上帝曾用此道来创造诸世界,又用此道来托住万有,又用此道来赐给其子民生命。

既然此道是生命之源,亚当的生命也自然是从此而来的。主的道才是生命,离开了这生命人就不过是地上没生命的尘土。

“人活着,不是单靠食物,乃是靠神口里所出的一切话”,神口里的话赐给了人生命,又维持着人的生命,是人的气息和粮食。

在以西结的异象中(结37),神要他对着骸骨说预言,要他们“听耶和华的话”,骸骨就长出了皮肉,又要他对风说预言,就有风吹过,骸骨就活了。是神的道与灵使骸骨成为活人的,正如同圣灵用道重生了我们。

圣灵伴随着圣道,圣道又伴随着圣灵。圣灵带来了圣道,见证着圣道,又使我们明白圣道。

16) All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness,17) that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work. 【提后3】

这里保罗说圣经是神“呼出(breath out)”的,这又是和“气”、“风”、“口”相关的表达。圣经正是神的道,见证着神的道,又是神的道的媒介。基督是神的道,又是神的道的道成肉身,而圣经也可说是某种“道成肉身”,是永恒之道在文字表达之中的降临。基督是圣灵感孕而生的,圣经是圣灵默示而成的。“风”、“气”更多是圣灵的形象,但“风”所吹来的正是神的话。圣灵总是伴随着圣道,圣道是外在的客观的,圣灵是内在的主观的,圣灵把圣道印在我们心里。圣灵使圣经成为“活的”,使那永恒真道活在我们中间。

正是这本圣经,在开篇创世纪中讲到亚当的受造的时候,就特意启示了亚当是从神的吹气中获得生命的,正如同所有人都是靠神的道而活一样。生命在基督里面,在基督里才能获得生命。我们原初的生命来自于神的第一次吹气从亚当而来,重生的生命来自于神的第二次吹气从基督而来。基督的话就是灵,就是生命,就是那“the breath of live”,籍着圣灵吹入我们里面。圣经正是这话,这道,是神所吹出的。

而这一切,又都居住在基督里面,基督正是神的话,所以才说基督的降世是“道”成了肉身。亚当的受造过程就很像是对基督的道成肉身的预表:神的气吹入尘土,而神的道则由马利亚取了人性:

圣灵要临到你身上,至高者的能力要荫庇你,因此所要生的圣者必称为神的儿子。【路1:35】
“The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy the Son of God.

上次是生命的气吹入尘土,这次是生命的主宰和源泉道成肉身。基督成为了生命之源,因为他本来就是生命之源,只是在基督里神把这生命之源赐给了我们,凡渴的都可以来喝。我们的救主降生了,道在人间,以马内利。

基督的降世正是“离开”天父,道成肉身,从天上来到我们中间,使我们能与他联合。基督是从天上降下来的生命的粮,又是唯一的通往父的路。正因为他是从父那里来的,所以才能把我们领到父那里去,他来的目的也正是要为把我们领到父那里去。

28) So Jesus proclaimed, as he taught in the temple, “You know me, and you know where I come from? But I have not come of my own accord. He who sent me is true, and him you do not know.29) I know him, for I come from him, and he sent me.【约7】

31) He who comes from above is above all. He who is of the earth belongs to the earth and speaks in an earthly way. He who comes from heaven is above all.32) He bears witness to what he has seen and heard, yet no one receives his testimony.33) Whoever receives his testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true.34) For he whom God has sent utters the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure.35) The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand.36) Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him. 【约3】

基督降生乃是受父的差遣,基督从父而来,道成肉身住在我们中间,传讲从神而来的道,这道是真的,因为基督是神无限量的圣灵所膏的,基督就是神的道,这道正是圣经所见证的。拒绝这道就如同拒绝神所吹的生气,是与生命隔绝。

亚当不过是尘土,因为神的“吹气”而从某种意义上与神相交,圣经也称亚当是神的儿子。夏娃是从亚当而出的,也因亚当而与神所吹的“生命之气”有份,从而成为众生之母。基督呢?“我在父里面,父在我里面,你不信么?”基督正是那生命之源,是神的道,是神口里的话,他又道成肉身。我们通过与基督的联合而有生命,以此来与神相交,这些又都是圣灵做成的,我们因圣灵而与基督联合,住在基督里面。父正是这样“救了我们脱离黑暗的权势,把我们迁到他爱子的国里”。这归于神三位一体的奥秘,圣父、圣子/圣道、圣灵总是协同工作。

15) He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.16) For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities-all things were created through him and for him.17) And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together.18) And he is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent.19) For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell,20) and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross. 【西1】

从亚当里我们获得的生命已经是很丰盛了,从基督里我们获得的生命则是更加丰盛。恩上加恩,脱离亚当里肉体的朽坏,在基督里获得永恒。

正如同亚当从尘土而受造一样基督道成了肉身,正如同亚当沉睡一样基督受难,基督以自己的血赎回了父所交给他的羊群,新圣城耶路撒冷,新妇,主迎娶她的日子也近了。

我们正是那新妇的众儿女,是主重价所赎回的,好叫我们归于神。要感恩于主的降生、受难,准备好自己的礼服,好去赴那天国的宴席。